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As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, [35] thus beginning Pax Britannica. France had to fight on multiple battlefronts against the other European powers. A nationwide conscription was voted to reinforce the old royal army made of noble officers and professional soldiers. With this new kind of army, Napoleon was able to beat the European allies and dominate Europe.

The revolutionary ideals, based no more on feudalism but on the concept of a sovereign nation, spread all over Europe. When Napoleon eventually lost and the monarchy reinstated in France these ideals survived and led to the revolutionary waves of the 19th century that bring democracy in many European countries. With the success of the American Revolution, the Spanish Empire also began to crumble as their American colonies sought independence as well.

As this process led to open conflicts between independentists and loyalists , the Spanish American Independence Wars immediately ensued; resulting, by the s, in the definitive loss for the Spanish Empire of all its American territories, with the exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico. The years following Britain's victory in the Napoleonic Wars were a period of expansion for the United Kingdom and its former American colonies, which now made up the United States.

This period of expansion would help establish Anglicanism as the dominant religion, English as the dominant language, and English and Anglo-American culture as the dominant culture of two continents and many other lands outside the British Isles.

Ancient Greek medicine: Influences and practice

Possibly the greatest change in the English-speaking world and the West as a whole following the Napoleonic Wars was the Industrial Revolution. The revolution began in Britain, where Thomas Newcomen developed a steam engine in to pump seeping water out of mines. This engine at first was powered by water, but later other fuels like coal and wood were used. Steam power had first been developed by the Ancient Greeks, [ citation needed ] but it was the British that first learned to use steam power effectively. In , the first steam powered railroad locomotive was developed in Britain, which allowed goods and people to be transported at faster speeds than ever before in history.

Soon, large numbers of goods were being produced in factories. This resulted in great societal changes, and many people settled in the cities where the factories were located. Factory work could often be brutal. With no safety regulations, people became sick from contaminants in the air in textile mills for, example. Many workers were also horribly maimed by dangerous factory machinery.

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Since workers relied only on their small wages for sustenance, entire families were forced to work, including children. These and other problems caused by industrialism resulted in some reforms by the midth century. The economic model of the West also began to change, with mercantilism being replaced by capitalism , in which companies, and later, large corporations , were run by individual investor s. New ideological movements began as a result of the Industrial Revolution, including the Luddite movement, which opposed machinery, feeling it did not benefit the common good , and the socialists , whose beliefs usually included the elimination of private property and the sharing of industrial wealth.

Unions were founded among industrial workers to help secure better wages and rights.

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Another result of the revolution was a change in societal hierarchy, especially in Europe, where nobility still occupied a high level on the social ladder. Capitalists emerged as a new powerful group, with educated professionals like doctors and lawyers under them, and the various industrial workers at the bottom. These changes were often slow however, with Western society as a whole remaining primarily agricultural for decades. The Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain and during the 19th century it became the most powerful Western nation. Britain also enjoyed relative peace and stability from until , this period is often called the Pax Britannica , from the Latin "British Peace".

This period also saw the evolution of British constitutional monarchy , with the monarch being more a figurehead and symbol of national identity than actual head of state, with that role being taken over by the Prime Minister , the leader of the ruling party in Parliament.

Ideas Have Influenced Civilization, Original Documents

Two dominant parties emerging in Parliament in this time were the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party. The Liberal constituency was made up of mostly of businessmen, as many Liberals supported the idea of a free market. Conservatives were supported by the aristocracy and farmers. Control of Parliament switched between the parties over the 19th century, but overall the century was a period of reform.

In more representation was granted to new industrial cities, and laws barring Catholics from serving in Parliament were repealed, although discrimination against Catholics, especially Irish Catholics, continued. Other reforms granted near universal manhood suffrage , and state-supported elementary education for all Britons.

More rights were granted to workers as well. Ireland had been ruled from London since the Middle Ages. After the Protestant Reformation the British Establishment began a campaign of discrimination against Roman Catholic and Presbyterian Irish, who lacked many rights under the Penal Laws , and the majority the agricultural land was owned the Protestant Ascendancy. Throughout the 19th century, Britain's power grew enormously and the sun quite literally "never set" on the British Empire, for it had outposts on every occupied continent.

All of India was under British rule by Many Britons settled in India, establishing a ruling class. They then expanded into neighbouring Burma. In the Far East, Britain went to war with the ruling Qing Dynasty of China when it tried to stop Britain from selling the dangerous drug opium to the Chinese people. The First Opium War — , ended in a British victory, and China was forced to remove barriers to British trade and cede several ports and the island of Hong Kong to Britain.

Soon, other powers sought these same privileges with China and China was forced to agree, ending Chinese isolation from the rest of the world. In an American expedition opened up Japan to trade with first the U. In Britain outlawed slavery throughout its empire after a successful campaign by abolitionists , and Britain had a great deal of success attempting to get other powers to outlaw the practice as well.

As British settlement of southern Africa continued, the descendants of the Dutch in southern Africa, called the Boers or Afrikaners , whom Britain had ruled since the Anglo-Dutch Wars , migrated northward, disliking British rule. Explorers and missionaries like David Livingstone became national heroes. Joined by mostly British colonists, they helped establish early colonies like Ontario and New Brunswick.

British settlement in North America increased, and soon there were several colonies both north and west of the early ones in the northeast of the continent, these new ones included British Columbia and Prince Edward Island. Rebellions broke out against British rule in , but Britain appeased the rebels' supporters in by confederating the colonies into Canada , with its own prime minister. Although Canada was still firmly within the British Empire, its people now enjoyed a great degree of self-rule.

Canada was unique in the British Empire in that it had a French-speaking province, Quebec , which Britain had gained rule over in the Seven Years' War. These convicts were often petty 'criminals', and represented the population spill-over of Britain's Industrial Revolution , as a result of the rapid urbanisation and dire crowding of British cities.

Other convicts were political dissidents, particularly from Ireland. The establishment of a wool industry and the enlightened governorship of Lachlan Macquarie were instrumental in transforming New South Wales from a notorious prison outpost into a budding civil society. Further colonies were established around the perimeter of the continent and European explorers ventured deep inland. A free colony was established at South Australia in with a vision for a province of the British Empire with political and religious freedoms.

The colony became a cradle of democratic reform. The Australian gold rushes increased prosperity and cultural diversity and autonomous democratic parliaments began to be established from the s onward. The native inhabitants of Australia, called the Aborigines , lived as hunter gatherers before European arrival. The population, never large, was largely dispossessed without treaty agreements nor compensations through the 19th century by the expansion of European agriculture, and, as had occurred when Europeans arrived in North and South America, faced superior European weaponry and suffered greatly from exposure to old world diseases such as smallpox , to which they had no biological immunity.

From the early 19th century, New Zealand was being visited by explorers, sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers and was administered by Britain from the nearby colony at New South Wales. By , New Zealand had a population made up mostly of Britons and their descendants. Following independence from Britain, the United States began expanding westward, and soon a number of new states had joined the union.

The Ideas That Have Influenced Civilization in the Original Documents

Soon, America's growing population was settling the Louisiana Territory, which geographically doubled the size of the country. At the same time, a series of revolutions and independence movements in Spain and Portugal's American empires resulted in the liberation of nearly all of Latin America , as the region composed of South America, most of the Caribbean, and North America from Mexico south became known. At first Spain and its allies seemed ready to try to reconquer the colonies, but the U. From on, the U.

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An early problem faced by the Mexican republic was what to do with its sparsely populated northern territories, which today make up a large part of the American West. The government decided to try to attract Americans looking for land. Americans arrived in such large numbers that both the provinces of Texas and California had majority white , English-speaking populations. This led to a culture clash between these provinces and the rest of Mexico. After several battles, Texas gained independence from Mexico, although Mexico later claimed it still had a right to Texas.

After existing as a republic modeled after the U. This led to border disputes between the U. The war ended with an American victory, and Mexico had to cede all its northern territories to the United States, and recognize the independence of California, which had revolted against Mexico during the war.

In , California joined the United States. In , the U. Politically, the U.

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By the midth century, the most important issue was slavery. The Northern states generally had outlawed the practice, while the Southern states not only had kept it legal but came to feel it was essential to their way of life. As new states joined the union, lawmakers clashed over whether they should be slave states or free states.

In , the anti-slavery candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected president. Fearing he would try to outlaw slavery in the whole country, several southern states seceded, forming the Confederate States of America , electing their own president and raising their own army.

Lincoln countered that secession was illegal and raised an army to crush the rebel government, thus the advent of the American Civil War — The Confederates had a skilled military that even succeeded in invading the northern state of Pennsylvania. However, the war began to turn around, with the defeat of Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and at Vicksburg, which gave the Union control of the important Mississippi River. Union forces invaded deep into the South, and the Confederacy's greatest general, Robert E. Lee , surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant of the Union in After that, the south came under Union occupation, ending the American Civil War.

Lincoln was tragically assassinated in , but his dream of ending slavery, exhibited in the wartime Emancipation Proclamation , was carried out by his Republican Party , which outlawed slavery, granted blacks equality and black males voting rights via constitutional amendments.